Poverty Alleviation Research- MASA

Title: A Case Study of Selected Poor Households in Kampung Bako, Sarawak

1.0  Introduction

Poverty has been one of the biggest challenges faced by our nation in decades. Ever since its formation in 1963, Malaysia had made great effort in alleviating poverty by transforming itself into a high-middle income nation. This can be proven by looking at the nation’s respectable economy growth regardless the challenging external factors Malaysia is able to reduce the rate of poverty every year. At the outset of The New Economic Policy in the 1970s with the aim of eradicating poverty and restructure society by the elimination of race with economic function, the NEP has been successful to an extent in reducing evidence of poverty but also been endemic with deficiencies and abuses. Therefore, new aspect of economic policy has been continuously been introduced. The Shared Prosperity Vision became the main thrust on a fair economic distribution as well as equal participation across all level of incomes, society, and regions to overcome inequality.

According to the Department of Statistic Malaysia (DOSM) report, inequality exist when there is a difference in the ability of the households to seize income opportunities. It is further explained by Stiglitz whereby inequality weakens the aggregate demand of individuals in the lower groups where these individuals concentrated all of their incomes to fulfil their basic necessities. Correspondingly, inequality of income leads to poverty. Poverty is defined as a state or condition in which a person or community lacks the financial resources to meet the basic needs standard of living. As such, the income level from employment is so low that basic human needs cannot be met (Chen, J., 2020).

Despite the above challenges and drawback, evidently Malaysia’s poverty reduction is very impressive but there remains a small figures vulnerable group of people in the country experiencing poverty for some geographical and socio-economic reasons. Regardless years of efforts to eradicate this state of misery, it is with us still, and no doubt it will remain for sometimes to come. Comprehending why and where it exists and how it can be alleviated is a major effort of most development institutions. This case study tackles a small part of this enormous problem; it proposes a practical, manageable and cost-effective of poverty impact assessment. It presents an approach to gathering minimal, but strategic, quantitative information over time on the status of poor people in Kampung Bako who is hopefully will have their lives notably improved by specific project interventions. This information will help in determining where, why and how to spend money and human resources in poverty-reduction efforts.

1.1  Poverty in Malaysia

The issue of poverty is very common across the world. Different nation is unique with their own culture and backgrounds; hence, every community cater to different factor that cause poverty. According to Saiti, Salad and Bulut (2019), four important elements is crucial as the pre-requisites of a successful poverty alleviation strategy. The elements are:

  1. Identification of the poor and their characteristic
  2. Understanding of the cause and factor that cause their poverty
  3. Designing specific policies with the objective of improving the living conditions of the poor
  4. Effective and cost-efficient implementation of the policies and involvement of the relevant institutions should be able to complement the direction of

Generally, causes of poverty is classified by three perspectives according Li, Su, and Liu, (2016) in which the first theoretical perspective describes poverty in terms of the individuals to be liable for their own poverty. As such, the problems of the poor people for example is the lack of abilities, effort or thrift. Secondly, from the perspective of poverty caused by unfavorable economic, political, cultural and social forces; such as exploitation by the capitalist and deficiency of social opportunities. This external factor directly affects the rate of poverty in a country. The third perspective views poverty is caused by unforeseen circumstances like illness, epidemic, or misfortunes in which poor people have little or no control (Smith, 1989).

It is evident the causes of poverty are numerous. In Malaysia, the factor of segregation in terms of ethnicity and geographical area has resulted into separated economic functions. For example, the Malays are mostly involved in subsistence agriculture and fishing and live in the rural areas while the Chinese conquered the modern and commerce sector of the economy. The Indians on the other hands are mainly laborer in rubber plantations. This unique economic function has led to income inequality among the ethnic groups. According to the Household Income and Basic Amenities Survey Report 2019, Bumiputera hold the highest poverty rate, 7.8% as compared to 1.4% among the Chinese community and 4.8% in the Indian community. In addition, poverty rate is also classified into rural area and urban area. In 2019, the rural poverty is stated at 12.4% as compared in the urban area which recorded as 3.8%. This shows that income inequality among ethnicity and geographical area plays as the key elements towards a fair economic distribution to ensure economic prosperity of the country. Hence, a number of measurements has been taken by the government in order to combat the poverty issue, so it is in line with poverty alleviation policies, poverty elimination strategies in which expectantly will able to reduce the poverty rate. This lead to the research questions for this study:

1.2  Research Questions

The study aims to answer these questions:

  1. Who are the poor households and their characteristics?
  2. What is the social and economic needs of the poor households in Kampung Bako?
  3. What are the approach and policies to take to improve the socio-economic condition of the households thus get them out of poverty?

Objectives of the study

Specifically, this study aims to:

  1. To obtain basic socio-economic information of selected poor households in Kampung Bako
  2. To investigate factors contributing to poverty among the selected poor households
  3. To suggest approach and policies of poverty alleviation in Kampung Bako

Comprehending why and where poverty exists and how it can be alleviated is a major effort of development institutions. This case study presents an approach to gathering minimal, but strategic, quantitative information over time on the status of poor people in village areas who, it is hoped, will have their lives notably improved by specific project interventions. This information will help in determining where, why and how to spend money and human resources in poverty-reduction efforts.

2.0 Methodology

 In this study the area covered comprised of 3 villages in Bako area namely Kampung Bako Lot, Bako Hulu and Bako Hilir. These villages are located close to one another, their socio- economic background is similar. However, the size of population in the villages are different depending on the size of the area. Located by the river of Sungai Bako, the journey to Bako village takes around 35 minutes of 37 kilometers car ride from Kuching town. This fishing village holds many promising eco-tourism opportunities as Bako National Park served as tourists attraction with beautiful flora and fauna as well as mesmerizing beach view. Despite the promising eco- tourism prospects, some of the people in the village are still workings as traditional fisherman, fish monger, selling sea products such as belacan, bubok (dried prawn) and owner of small businesses as their source of income. According to the head of the village, Puan Hajah Janibah binti Haji Hazmi, the total population of the villagers is estimated 3000 people and 500 houses, with the majority of Malay ethnics and minority of other races such as Chinese, Iban and Bidayuh.

A baseline study is basically a collection of data about the current socio-economic situation in the community that we want to work in before the project starts. It is a detailed description of the status quo. To take sample in this study, nonprobability sampling technique is used. This technique involves selecting a specific household on the basis of personal judgment or convenience, and the probability of any particular member of the village population being chosen is unknown. The researcher used this technique because it was convenient to obtain a number of completed questionnaires quickly and economically. In addition, the researcher selects the sample based on her personal judgement on appropriate characteristic of sample member, which is the poor house conditions and family size.

Moreover, the case study also involved semi-structured interview. Before a study in Kampung Bako is conducted, a structured question is first provided. A semi-structured interview is a method of spontaneous interview of selected respondents based on research needs. Once the researcher gets the data from the village guide (Khairul Nizam Bin Naha, kampung Bako representative) in a structured interview, to ensure the accuracy of the data, the method of this type carried out. Although it is spontaneous, but the questions asked were constructed earlier.

The data collected by interviewing the head of household of the 10 selected households. The researcher had collected the data within 3 days using the questionnaire designed by Yayasan Kemajuan Insan (YAKIN). Besides that, sample was taken by using nonprobability sampling technique whereby samples chosen by referral from initial respondent.

3.0 Result of the study

Based on the date gathered, below is the result obtained:


of household

Category Respondents (N= 10)
Frequency Percentage (%)
Gender Male 2 20
Female 8 80
Marital Single 1 10
Status Married 2 20
Single Mother 6 60
Divorcee 1 10
Age Less than 40 years old 1 10
40 to 50 years old 3 30
51 to 60 years old 2 20
61 to 70 years old 3 30
> 70 years 1 10
Occupation Self-employed 4 40
Employed 3 30
Housewife 2 20
Not working 1 10
Education No education 3 30
Primary School 4 40
Secondary School 3 30
College/ University
Institute Vocational
Household size 1-2 people

3-4 people

5-6 people

7-8 people









Table 1: Respondent’s demographic profile

 Table 1 represent the demographic profile of responding 10 households based on their gender, the number of male respondents (20%) is lower than the female respondents (80%). This is because most of the respondents are among the single mothers who are categorized as the poor family. The demographic profile of the respondents is further classified by their status, age, occupation, education, household size, and income range. From Table 1, it shows that majority of the respondents are single mother (60%) followed by married (20%), single (10%) and divorcee (10%). In terms of age, most of the respondents are among the 40-50 years old (30%) and 61-70 years old (30%). Majority of the respondents are self-employed (40%) followed by working at companies (30%), as a housewife (20%) and not working (10%). The self-employed respondents are commonly work as a fisherman, hawkers, and some of them make and sell food from home.

In terms of education, most of the respondents received education at primary school level (40%), followed by secondary school and not receive education at 30% respectively. None of the respondents receive higher education.

Regarding the household size, most of the households consists of 7-8 people in a house (40%), 30% of them living with 3-4 people in a house, 20% living with 1-2 people and 10% have 5-6 people in their home.

In addition, the monthly income of all the respondents are below Malaysia’s new Poverty Line Income (PLI) 2019 which is declared at RM2,208 per month (DOSM, 2019). The monthly income from the questionnaire structured is totaled by sum of wages, revenue from self-made, aid from family members as well as the monthly government aid. This shows that all of the households are poor with majority of them (40%) have the range income of RM1001-RM1500 per month followed by 30% earned at the range of RM500-RM1000, 20% income range of RM100-500 and lastly only 10% earned RM1500-RM2000 per month.

Next, cross tabulation is conducted to show data tables that present the results of the entire group of respondents as well as results from sub-groups of survey respondents. Cross tabulations enable the researcher to examine relationships within the data that might not be readily apparent when analyzing total survey responses:

Age Income Total
RM100-500 RM500-1000 RM1001- 1500 1600 or more
Less than 40 years old 1 1
40 to 50 years old 1 1 1 3
51 to 60 years old 1 1 2
61 to 70 years old 2 1 3
70 years above 1 1

Table 2: Age-Income crosstabulation


Table 2 present the cross-tabulation of Age with Income. Of the 4 respondents who earned RM1000-RM1500, 25% of them is at the age of 40s-50s. This corresponds with 33.3% of respondent who earned RM500-RM1000, and 50% of 40-50 years old respondent earned RM100- Rm500. Focusing on the number of the highest income earner of RM2000 or less reveals only a group of respondents who is at the age of 51-60 years old. The respondent is employed with a shipping company as a technician.

Gender Income Total
RM100-500 RM500-1000 RM1001- 1500 1600 or more
Male 1 1 2
Female 2 3 3 8

Table 3: Gender-Income crosstabulation

 Table 3 present the cross-tabulation of Gender with Income. Of the 4 respondents who earned RM1000-RM1500, 75% of them are female. This corresponds with 100% of respondent who earned RM501-1000 and 100% of respondent who earned RM100-500 above. Focusing on the number of the highest income earner of RM2000 and above reveals only a group of respondents who is the male who works as a technician at a private company. Thorough modification on the study procedures on the number of respondents according to gender needs to be taken into consideration in order to get more male respondents.

Status Income Total
RM100-500 RM500-1000 RM1001- 1500 1600 or more
Single 1 1
Married 1 1 2
Single Mother 1 3 2 6
Divorcee 1 1

Table 4: Marital status-Income crosstabulation

 Table 4 present the cross-tabulation of Status with Income. Of the 4 respondents who earned RM1000-RM1500, 50% of them are single mother. This corresponds with 100% of respondent who earned RM501-1000 and 50% of respondent who earned RM100-500. Focusing on the number of the highest income earner of RM2000 and above reveals only a group of respondents who is married. It shows that marital status is the main social factor that contribute to poverty as a single parent can only earned RM100-RM1500 per month compared to married household who manage to earn RM1001-RM1600 per month.

Occupation Income Total
RM100-500 RM500-1000 RM1001- 1500 1600 or more
Self employed 1 2 1 4
Employed 2 1 3
Housewife 1 1 2
Not working 1 1

Table 5: Occupation-Income crosstabulation

Table 5 present the cross-tabulation of Occupation with Income. Of the 4 respondents who earned RM1000-RM1500, 25% of them are self-employed. This corresponds with 66.7% of respondent who earned RM501-1000 and 50% of respondent who earned RM100-500. Focusing on the number of the highest income earner of RM2000 and above reveals only one group of respondents who is employed at company. It shows that the source of income of the respondents whom are self-employed benefited from activities such as catching fish, selling food from home and other local products.

Household size Income Total
RM100-500 RM500-1000 RM1001- 1500 1600 or more
1-2 people 1 1 2
3-4 people 1 1 1 3
5-6 people 1 1
7-8 people 2 2 4

Table 6: Household size-Income crosstabulation

Table 6 present the cross-tabulation of Household size with Income. Of the 4 respondents who earned RM1000-RM1500, 50% of them live with 7-8 people in a house. This corresponds with 66.7%% of respondent who earned RM501-1000. Focusing on the number of the highest income earner of RM2000 above live with 3-4 people.

4.0  Discussion

 This case study is  basically meant to determine the characteristic of the 10 selected households and to determine the factors or determinants contributing to their poor conditions. Poverty is a social construction as The World Bank would defines poverty as:

“a pronounced deprivation of well-being related to lack of material income or consumption, low levels of education and health, vulnerability and exposure to risk, lack of opportunity to be heard and powerlessness”.

Based on the definition above, the case study shows that the 10 selected households in kampung Bako especially among the single parent is vulnerable to poverty. In identifying the vulnerability to poverty of the households, the researcher has conducted questionnaire to get the data of monthly income of the selected respondent. Most of the selected households are self- employed they work as a fisherman, hawkers, prepared and sell food from home and other local products. For the single parent household, most of them have the difficulties to work because they have small children at home and the lack of public transportation make it hard for them to travel from one place to another. Thus, they can only make and selling food from their home. In addition, the uncertain daily earning among the household who works as fishermen are due to natural factors as well as the limited gears for fishing for this small fisherman may make them vulnerable to poverty and hard to get out of the poverty ring. The average monthly income of fishing households is between RM900-RM1000 depends on fish season while the household who work as casual worker earned minimum salary of RM1200. From this job their income is low that their basic human needs cannot be met. Most of the households although had received government aid; one- off payment under Bantuan Prihatin 2020, monthly financial assistance schemes from the welfare department to help the poor families and the elders that not helping them to be out of poverty. In addition, high unemployment among the villagers contributes to the poverty. The location of the village to town (where there is more job opportunities) takes about 40 minutes by car became a barrier for them. For instance, a single mother with three kids is unable to work far from home as she has to take care of the children.

Secondly, the low level of education of the respondent and their children makes difficulties in finding other jobs. Most of them were only able to complete a high school respondent’s education is high school graduate and they have no other technical training. The low education

level leaves them no choice to find a better job and trap being a traditional fisherman and casual workers. Moreover, one important finding the researcher found out that most of household have at least one child or school going age are not schooling. This for certain reasons such as loss of interest to learn, have issues with their parents, and no transportation to go to school. The children are also in an environment where it is uncomfortable to study; the house is too cramped hence it affects their interest to receive education. Transportation wise, the children rely on public bus to go to school. They need to cross the river by boat (sampan, a traditional boat) and wait for the public bus at the terminal. As the bus interval time is not so often, most of the students must wait for more than 30 minutes for the next trip to be available. This adds toward children drop out at the end of secondary school. Hence, it can be said that the common factor that contribute to poverty in this case study is the education achievement of the household and local job opportunities in which most of them are unable to get better job as their education is barely minimum.

Thirdly, non-durable products especially fresh fish and prawns should be marketed immediately. This creates a high dependence of the fishermen on the traders or collectors of the catch so this trader or collector can be charged below the market price. This is because the fishermen do not have cold storage (refrigerator) used to accommodate the fish to be lasting. Therefore, the fish should be sold as soon as it landed. In some cases, the fisherman will marinate the fish and dry it to avoid loss. However, this is depended on the weather. If the fishes do not dry in two or three days, the fishes will be rotten and cause another loss. The dependence on natural factors like weather confirms how vulnerable the condition of their work and it contributes to the difficulty to get out of the poverty ring. In addition, at certain times during the fish season, the surplus of catch can be utilized if they have facilities for it such as Cold Storage. However, to avoid losses, they are willing to sell the fishes at very low prices to the trader who have the facilities to store and sell the fish at Bako fish market. This resulted in fishermen do not having a surplus of production although sometimes they have abundant production. For them if their catches are all sold during the day, they are grateful and ready to work for another day.

Henceforth, from the result obtained in the baseline study, strategies suggested to alleviate poverty are:

  1. To increase the income and productivity of the poor, expansion of their capital and efficient capital utilization as such the provision of better facilities such as cold storage and proper stall to sell their products
  2. To provide training and facilities to the fisherman
  3. To provide vocational trainings for the single mothers to increase their income
  4. Guide the families to market their products in order to increase their income
  5. To increase employment opportunities, training, education, financial and technical skills must be provided to increase the chances of opportunity of employment and facilitate the transition of moving into the modern sector of the economy
  6. To promote vocational training for the children who refuses to go to school
  7. To provide free school bus for the children to go to school with more efficient schedule
  8. To provide more productive public transportation schedule for the villagers to work at town

Among the 10 household, I would like to suggest for YAKIN to follow on these 7 household:

Name/ Ic Situation Gov. Aid Proposed Intervention
1. Jamasiah 4 children are still living with her:

First child work at a factory

Second child is married and live next door. Has online baking business

Third child, 23 years old, kerja kupak payak

Fourth child, 19 years old,

Already registered with e- kasih

No monthly government aid.

1.  Willing to join cake/ traditional cake courses/ workshop for her three daughters

2.  Provide transportation for her children to work at town

3.  Provide baking appliances



Fifth child, 17 years old still schooling at SMK Bako

All of them are only at SPM level education

There is no transportation for her children to work at town.

2. Jamilah One daughter still studying at UMS

One daughter is married and work at a factory

One daughter work at a supermarket

Income RM300 per month from selling snacks at her house

Never got government aid

1. Willing to attend courses/workshops on cooking and baking provided there is transport available.



No transportation

3. Nazira (33) 3 children all are still schooling Received RM300/month from the welfare 1.  Willing to join cooking and baking courses

2.  Interested in beauty classes


3.  Provide courses/

workshop on business at home

4. Saudah (40) 6 children, 4 schoolers – Never received government aid 1. Willing to attend courses/workshops on cooking and baking provided there is transport available.
5. Masli (64) 3 children and 3 grandchildren Already registered with e- kasih

No monthly government aid.

1. Provide modern fishing appliance (boat engine)
6. Rokayah (40) 4 children:


One primary schooler

One children drop out school

3 unemployed

– Never received government aid 1.  Provide baking appliances such as ovens

2.  Provide technical course for the unemployed

7. Nornini (50) 6 children Received monthly government aid RM600 1.  Register her son to Yakin school

2.  Provide capital for her business

3.  Provide courses/ workshop on business at home

5.0  Limitation and conclusion

After conducting the case study on selected poor household in Kampung Bako, the researcher has found weakness in the questionnaire. The constructed questionnaire was not comprehensible in terms of the respondent’s daily income, their daily expenses and savings, and the place they bought food. These questions are vital to indicate their style of living from day to day and eventually helps understanding their needs better. Hence, the questionnaire could be amended and re-piloted until no further changes were considered necessary. Moreover, in developing country settings, contextual factors and researchers’ biases could play out in the implementation of research surveys. In such situations, sometimes it is feasible to outsource the survey work to professional researchers who may have wider experiences of undertaking large field surveys in the given or similar areas.

In conclusion, this study is important to observe the status quo of household in Kampung Bako to measure the solution in time, capacity and resources. It is necessary to conduct this baseline study to identify the indicator of poverty line at the area and come out with a reliable solution and strategy so that intervention can be made. Above all, an outline for standard end-course reporting by training providers, set-up for the tracer study to collect information related need to be done to enable proper steering of the intervention thus, able to alleviate poverty.


Chen, J. (2020, September 4). Poverty. Retrieved from Investopedia: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/poverty.asp

Gamble. R. Prabhakar. (2005). Assets and Poverty. Theoria: A Journal of Social and political Theory, No 107, Power, Poverty and the Democratic Nation, 1-18.

Li, Y., Su, B., & Liu, Y. (2016). Realizing targeted poverty alleviation in China People’s voices, implementation challenges and policy implications. China Agricultural Economic Review, 8(3), 443–454. https://doi.org/10.1108/CAER-11-2015-0157

Smith, K. a. (1989). Rags, riches and bootstraps: beliefs about causes of wealth. The Sociological Quarterly, 93-107.

Saiti, B., Salad, A. J., & Bulut, M. (2019). The Role of Cash Waqf in Poverty Reduction: A Multi-country Case Study, 21–34. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-10907-3_3

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Prepared by: Nurul Diyana Binti Zaidi MASA Research Officer


Appendix 2

In depth story of each case

  1. JamasiahJamasiah in her 50s, is employed as a cleaner at school. Being a single mother with 4 children under her care. One of her children is married, helping her mother with her baking business. Her mother is hoping that 2 of her daughter can get a stable job instead of working part time at prawn factory. While his only son’s job is affected by the covid-19 he is no longer working at the factory nearby.
  1. Nauyah (x)Nauyah (66) is a single mother lives with her one disabled child and grandchildren. Her son who was injured from sweet cane machine lost his fingers and now is unable to continue his drinks business. Nauyah is unable to work anymore as she is very old. She used to sell frozen roti canai ordered by people in the village. Now this family relies on government aid and hoping for work opportunities that suits their conditions to make their lives better.
  1. Jamilah (/)
    Jamilah is a 49 years old single mother with 3 children. She is hoping to be able to work in selling food and willing to join workshop and courses such as baking in order to upgrade her skills and quality of her products.
  1. Yong
    Yong is a 75 years old single woman who lives alone in her house after her sister died. She received government aid monthly.
  1. Nazira (33) (/)
    Two of her children all are still schooling . Received RM300/month from the welfare. She is willing to join cooking and baking courses and very interested in beauty classes. She hopes that she will be able to join these courses/ workshop so that she can start business at home
  1. Saudah (/)
    Losing her beloved husband in a tragedy, Saudah (40) is now a widow with six children. Her income RM1000-1200 monthly from selling nasi lemak, kuih-muih and belacan is not sufficient for her family. As her eldest is working at a factory, Toko, she able to help her mother providing food on the table. Saudah’s second daughter is married and still live together under the same roof. Her son in law work at a factory in Demak. Running a family of seven with only her and her daughter earning is no easy task. Her expenditures run over RM1500 monthly. Besides that, having a 2-year-old baby makes her difficult to work far from home.
  1. Masli
    Masli Rafaee (64) is a traditional fisherman who used to challenges. Living by the river of Sungai Bako, he faced various obstacles from climate change. On April this year, Masli has faced tragic incident where his son died in a drowning tragedy. Masli and two other fishermen including his son had gone out to sea at Pulau Lakei when suddenly their wooden boat capsized by a storm. Losing his eldest son in the tragedy has changed the family’s livelihood. He is now taking care of his daughter in law (Saudah) and 6 grandchildren who lives next door. Thus, even in his old age, he still has to work with his son pulling additional labor duty such as fixing wooden boat during his free time to support the additional expenses.Masli and his wife has 3 children and 3 grandchildren living under his roof. His second child, a daughter is a disabled. She is not able to work. While his other daughter works at a private company, his youngest son works as a lorry driver at Demak. Masli’s son who is a divorcee has 3 children. They are 14 years old, 12 years old and 10 years old who are school-going.

    While focusing on fishing, his wife helps selling dry fish, belacan, bubok and other seafood products to the market nearby. Despite using the best inputs, he is unable to get good prices at the market. This is because the wholesalers in the nearby market collude together to keep the prices low and thus forcing him to distress sell. When the weather is not suitable for fishing, Masli will repair his wooden boat and fishing equipment. With the current trend, Masli worries this year the expenses of running a family of six might prove to be too much. The same life has served his family for generations very well. He wonders exactly what has changed for his time.

  1. Rokayah
    Rokayah Kadri who is in her 40s, is a divorcee from Kampung Bako Hulu. Having 4 children under her care, she works as a hospital laundry staff of a company in Senari. As she is a single mother it becomes very hard for her to run the family with one school-going. Her monthly income is RM1200 is insufficient for her family. According to Rokayah, her husband was affected by the pandemic Covid-19 so he has stop giving alimony for their children for the last 6 months. Despite having an income and monthly aid from her working eldest, the family does not have saving. Her family lives with her sister-in-law, who also has children of 4. Rokayah works only at night shift from 4:30 p.m. to 2:00 a.m. Her transportation to go to work is by van with monthly fees of RM46. Besides that, she also needs to pay rm23 monthly for boat to across Bako river.Rokayah’s first child is a 23-year-old works as a cashier with monthly income of RM1200 while her second son who is a 21-year-old work as fisherman. Her third child who is a 15-year-old girl, is a school dropout. She refuses to go to school because the motorcycle was taken by her father. Her last child is an 8-year-old is still at primary school not far from their house. Rokayah did not receive monthly single mother aids from the government as her children is able to work.
  1. Hasanah
    Hasanah (61) is a single mother. She lives with her children, son in law, and grandkids. There are 7 members in the house. Despite having a working son and son in law, Hasanah sometime follows a group of fishermen to go to the sea during peak season. Her income was around RM500-RM1000 monthly. She has received government aid and registered under e-kasih.
  1. Nornini
    Striving to improve her life, a single mother of 6, Nornini (50) has been thinking about the future of her and her family. Living at Kampung Bako Tengah, she sells fried banana, desserts such as kuih muih, drinks, and other food from her house as a source of income for the family. With 5 mouths to feed, 4 school-going children and one disabled child among them, Nornini has big hopes toward her children’s education. Her eldest 21 years old son is still studying in Kuala Lumpur taking welding courses. Her daughter, 19, is schooling at a vocational school in Kuching. Her third child (17) is a school dropout, works with her uncle selling fish at the market. Currently she lives with her 3 younger children who are 12, 11, and 9-year-old who are still at primary school. Her 11 year old daughter is a special needs kid receive her education at Sk Panjar Sejingkat which is located about 15km from her house. Therefore, she relies on her kind neighbor to send her kid to school every day. According to Nornini, before her husband passed away she managed to work at the factory to support the family but now she can only sell food from her house because the neighbor sometimes might not be able to pick her daughter from school. In that case, Nornini has to pick up her daughter from school using motorcycle. Nornini is a hard working potential woman who dreams about the growth of her business and the family’s quality of lie. She wants to ensure well education for all her children but in that situation, it seems a challenge to ensure three times meal a day.
  1. Nazira
    Nazira is a 33 years old single mother with three children. Her two children are still schooling and she left at home taking care of her 2 year old son. She relies on monthly government aid and is willing to upgrade her skills in cooking and make up. She is hoping to join training as she is still young and would like to give her best in raising her kids.
  1. Othman
    Othman is a 40 years old man who works at a private company with monthly salary of RM2000. He has 3 children and one of them is a high school student while the other 2 is married and still live together under the same roof.